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By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed crucial Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic procedure, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all sensible domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of diversified from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined so far in either the formal capability and the services which were grammaticalized. The grammar presents proofs for the postulated hypotheses pertaining to varieties and services. The grammar is written in a mode obtainable to linguists operating inside various theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised by way of a wealthy consonantal method, a 3 vowel procedure, and a tone process. The language has ample vowel insertion ideas and a vowel concord approach. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles let the parsing of the clause into elements. The language has 3 kinds of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The damaging paradigms of verbs range from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and huge method of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic kinfolk in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can stick to numerous materials. The grammatical function of that argument is coded by way of inflectional markers at the verb and so much apparently, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical family members additional to verbs are varied for various periods of verbs.

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Extra info for A Grammar of Wandala

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In citation forms, in clause-final position, or before pauses in sentence-internal position. A cluster of consonants may emerge across word boundaries, when the word-final vowel is deleted and the next word begins with a consonant. If the resulting cluster is disallowed, an epenthetic vowel is inserted. There are no word-initial geminate consonants in phonetic structures. The underlying geminate consonants are preceded by an epenthetic vowel in phonetic realizations. Thus, the noun úkkùlà ‘chicken’ most probably has an initial geminated k.

The voiced lateral fricative has a considerable narrowing just before the release, producing an impression of ending in a stop. In the voiceless lateral fricative, this characteristic is much Consonantal system 33 less pronounced, and in some dialects it does not have this characteristic at all. The voiced lateral fricative is reduced to [l] before an obstruent. : (13b) à kkə̀l-v-á 3SG break-APPL-GO ‘he broke a stick’ zàdè stick à kkə̀ɮ-yà-n-vé 3SG break-1SG-3SG-APPL ‘he broke it for me’ Liquids r rà ‘any’, re ‘nominalizing suffix’.

Wandala allows any two consonants in the underlying structures in word-initial position, including geminated consonants. In the phonetic structures, no geminated consonants may occur in word-initial position, and only some clusters are allowed in that position. In word-final position, some consonants may occur in the underlying structure, but there are no word-final consonants in the phonetic structure unless they form syllabic onsets with the next vowel or a sonorant. The phonotactics of the underlying structures does not take into consideration larger structures, such as the phrase, which must be taken into consideration in the phonotactics of phonetic realizations.

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A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier

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