This crucial heart English textbook, now in its 3rd version, introduces scholars to the wide variety of literature written in England among 1150 and 1400.
New, completely revised variation of this crucial heart English textbook.
Introduces the language of the time, giving suggestions on pronunciation, spelling, grammar, metre, vocabulary and neighborhood dialects.
Now comprises extracts from ‘Pearl’ and Chaucer’s ‘Troilus and Criseyde’.
Bibliographic references were up-to-date throughout.
Each textual content is followed through specific notes.
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Additional resources for A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)
The great majority of verbs are weak and their numbers steadily increased, since most newly formed or introduced verbs were weak; also there was a tendency for verbs that were strong in Old English to become weak in Middle English. Many of the commonest verbs, however, are strong. g. in Modern English kill, laugh, learn, bend ), whereas strong verbs form their past tense and past participle by changing their stem vowel in accordance with an ancient rule that goes right back to the remote ancestor of English, the ‘Indo-European mother-tongue’.
Pl. past participle ich ku he we, 3e, ha draf drive draf driven ich, ku, he drive we, 3e, ha driven idriven Note that in the indicative the forms of the ﬁrst and third persons singular are identical, and the form of the plural is that of the second person singular with the addition of -n. In the subjunctive the singular and plural forms are the same as the second person singular and the plural of the indicative respectively. These observations apply to all regular strong verbs. In the same ‘class’ as driven – that is to say, with the same series of vowel changes – are riden, writen, biden, ‘to wait’, risen and others.
Me us gen. min, mi ure dat. me us second person: ‘thou’ and ‘you’ nom. ku 3e acc. ke ow gen. kin ower dat. ke ow third person: ‘he’, ‘it’, ‘she’, ‘they’ singular plural masc. neut. fem. nom. he hit ho, he(o), hi hi, ho, heo acc. hine hit hi, heo hi gen. his his hire, hore hore, heore dat. 2 First and Second Person Pronouns Forms of the ﬁrst and second person pronouns survived throughout the Middle English period with little change. From an early date ich is often reduced to I, as in I ne can ne I ne mai, 1/33, and in some dialects ich is attached to a verb beginning with a vowel or h or w, as in ichil, ‘I will’, 5/132, ichot (ich + wot), ‘I know’, 14g/10.
A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)